Preeclampsia: Risk Factors and Symptoms

15.12.2018
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Preeclampsia: Risk Factors and Symptoms

Preeclampsia is one of the most important causes of maternal and infant death. Preeclampsia which occurs during the last three months of pregnancy leads to miscarriage, premature labor and, most importantly maternal and infant death. Especially, expectant mothers who work so much and have no opportunity to rest during pregnancy are at risk.

Preeclampsia is a disease that occurs only due to pregnancy, and the reason for it has not been known yet. Preeclampsia starts with protein loss in the urine. Then women experience fluid retention with swelling in the many parts of their body. The blood pressure level of the mother begins to increase. In this case, hypertension which is the most common problem in pregnancy may be seen. Hypertension is seen in 12-15 percent of all pregnancies and generally occurs because of preeclampsia.

Working Women at Risk

Preeclampsia occurs more frequently in pregnancies under the age of 18 and above 30 years, in multiple pregnancies such as twin pregnancies, in cases where the amniotic water is high, in patients with high blood glucose levels and with chronic hypertension. Pregnant women who work so much and have no opportunity to rest during pregnancy are at risk.

Early diagnosis is important in the treatment

What is important in preeclampsia is the early diagnosis and correct classification.  Preeclampsia is a serious disease that can be treated when it is noticed in the early period, but it causes the death of the mother and the baby in the late period. By evaluating the amount of protein loss in the urine and the blood pressure of the mother with the correct classification mild, moderate and severe preeclampsia are distinguished.

Hypertension or albuminuria is sufficient to diagnose preeclampsia. Symptoms of preeclampsia are a sudden increase in weight, swelling in the face, exhaustion, dysmnesia, mental fog, falling asleep, decrease in baby movements, abdominal pain, blind spots in your eyes, sudden vision disorders, liver pain, sudden nausea, and vomiting, yellowing of the eyes or skin, and decreased urine. In rare cases and especially in the mothers who have never gone to see a doctor, the first sign of preeclampsia can be eclampsia.

Two categories of preeclampsia: mild and moderate preeclampsia

In the mild form, frequent outpatient management is recommended. Women in Moderate preeclampsia group should be kept in the hospital because they are able to pass to the severe preeclampsia group at any time.  Especially in severe preeclampsia group, birth is planned regardless of the gestational week. Otherwise, it is not possible to prevent maternal and infant mortality.

In the mild preeclampsia group, the mother is provided with the necessary training and self-monitoring at home. Blood pressure measurement and urine protein testing should be done at regular intervals, and pregnant women should be informed about other clinical conditions. The patient should limit the physical activities and rest.

It should be kept in mind that patients in the moderate preeclampsia group should be kept in hospital and that patients pass to the preeclampsia at any time. When the appropriate week for the baby’s lung development is reached (week 34 and above), birth should be planned as soon as possible.

 

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